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Symbol Description Units
JDM Inertia of drive mechanism kg-m2
TDM Torque of drive mechanism Nm
aDM Rotational acceleration rad/s2
h Efficiency of drive mechanism 1
q Incline angle above horizontal o
g Acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s2
FCB Counterbalance force at load N
FThrust Thrust force at load N
mLoad Mass of load + payload kg
mCB Mass of counterbalance kg
mC Mass of cart kg
mW Mass of one wheel kg
JW Inertia of one wheel kg-m2
nW Number of wheels  
nDW Number of driven wheels  
fDW Factor of total mass over driven wheels 1
rW Radius of wheel m
rA Radius of axle m
Fm Force due to bearing friction, rolling friction and lever arm friction
FTr Applied traction force
(a clamped force, for example in rail systems)
FSpN Spring normal force
FNS Wheel no slip force
fR Lever arm of the rolling friction m
c Rim and wheel flange friction coefficient
mB Bearing friction coefficient
mW Wheel-to-surface friction coefficient  

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